Session 3 Response to Prompts

A. Place an X in the cells to indicate which activities correspond to which interactions. 


 B. Discuss of the types of interactions that are most often used in the content area for which you expect to design instruction. Be sure to explain the content area, the types of students and types of objectives with which you will be working.

 It is more hard to interact between instructor-learner, learner-learner, and learner-content in the e-learning class than face-to-face class because, according to this week material, the more the e-learning class instructor tries to satisfy all face-to-face interactions perfectly, the more technology skills are required. It makes students confused. The instructor should identify learners’ preferences, prior background, and experience through a quick survey and an interview before the class begins in order to decide the interaction medium and others. I am interested in English class for ESL students. ESL student is a learner who learns English as a second language so this class would be divided into three subgroups; beginner, intermediate, advanced level class.

 To decide the interaction medium for instructor-learner, the instructor should identify the instructor and students’ preferences. For example, the interaction could be conducted by chat or email which is indirect if the instructor feels burdensome having a close relationship with students. There are several media for interaction between instructor and learner such as chat, Skype, and email. This course will be designed that the instructor and learners can communicate during the lesson through a chat, and also email each other after class. These interaction could attract learners’ interests and have opportunity to correct the wrong information.

 Learner-content interaction could be conducted by several media such as presentation, reading, storytelling, and field trip. For beginner and intermediate level classes, the presentation and storytelling would be appropriate medium because the presentation transmits clear information with a logical procedure and this form of storytelling helps students understand and memorize information easily. In advanced level class, reading medium would be used because advanced level students are able to fully understand materials because they already take pre-requisite courses in order to take advanced level. It is also possible that learners could find in-depth information by searching online sources in a library and be inspired by themselves through this process.

 Learner-learner interaction could be conducted by various ways such as discussion board, chat, blog, email, and Skype. In this English class which I would design, learners could use the discussion board which can share each others’ different perspectives by reading posts. Also, this class offers group work because I think that learners could acquire responsibility, understanding ability, leadership, cooperation skill through this kind of work. Skype, email, google.doc would be used for this group work.

 C. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of the Horton text discuss three categories of activities: Absorb, Do, and Connect. After reading these chapters you are to locate one or more online classes and identify one Absorb, one Do and one Connect activity. Present your findings using this format:

 URL :


 Course Content

  • Chapters in English 103 class is consist of interpreting literature, prose, dramatic literature, literary terms, and basics of writing essays. And, specifically, this first course is about analyzing and interpreting English literature and offers some strategies and useful tips to help learners interpret literature easier. The purpose of this class are; how to infer meaning, how using context can find meaning, how to use visualization, how to understand tone and mood, types of reading strategies, how structure affects meaning. Transcript and quiz materials which can develop learners’ understanding are given after the presentation.

 Intended Students, probable Student Characteristics & Instructor Characteristics

  • The intended student is learners who want to improve their skills in analyzing and interpreting English literature and also who prepare CLEP examination. Probably, learners for this class should be in high level in English and have a self-motivation and self-regulation. The instructor delivers clear pronunciation and detailed explanation by repeating an explanation about similar solving problem pattern several times. The instructor has to have high English level and at least master’s degree in writing and literature.

 Identify the Type of Activity

  • The presentation is used as an absorb activity in this course, to be accurate, animated graphic. The instructor explains about how to infer vocabulary which they do not know by highlighting words. And in do activity, learners have opportunities to apply to what they learn so far through some quizzes; practice activity. Practice activities are divided into three activities such as drill-and-practice activities, hands-on activities, and guided-analysis activities. And in this class, drill-and-practice activity is used. Through this activity, students are exposed to the inferring procedure by repeating similar patterns. And I could not find connect activity in this course.

 Identify and Discuss the Interactions in the Activity

  • There are nothing to discuss with learners or interact with instructor. I think it would be better to offer the instructor’s email address or discussion board.



 Course Content

  • This content shows learners how to use the powerful tools “Excel 2013” for organizing, visualizing , and calculating their data. This tutorial offers really useful information about excel 2013 and all instruction is for free. This course instructs how to download a Excel2013 first, and then cell basic, modifying columns, rows, and cell, Simple formulas, sorting data, filtering data, and chart, etc… Also, it provides students with materials such as videos, references, and quizzes.

 Intended Students/Probable Student Characteristics

  • The target of this course is a learner who wants to learn Excel2013 or wants to go to companies which require Excel2013 ability. And learners are required a basic computer background in order to take this course. And the instructor has to have a high computer background and is well acquainted with Excel2013.

 Identify the Type of Activity

  • This course offers a reading material(manual) as an absorb activity. Through this activity, learners understand the process and each class includes presentations in order to help students understand further. This course provides student with challenge tasks which is guided-analysis as a do activity. Learners could follow the manual and solve the problem step-by-step. There is no connect activity.


Session 2: Content, Instructor and Student Characteristics

leaflet_21x301. Scenarios
Course A
Content: This course will cover beginning college algebra.

Instructor(s): This course is taught by various adjunct and full time professors who are very familiar with the content who have differing degrees of tech skills and online teaching experience. The same class has to serve for all instructors.

Students: All students in this course are college freshman and sophomores with good technology skills and each has successfully taken an online orientation to online learning course.

Content : This class should be conducted by convergent type to solve the problem. And it is the class for beginners so the instructor has to teach from the basic. And content should be explained concretely the beginner learners could understand well.

Instructor : The instructor needs to consider his preferences such as a tolerance. And adjunct professor usually does not stay in their office so it will be hard to interact between the instructor and student each other. Also, because all instructors teach same class, instructors need to communicate each other about what students learned and the progress.

Student : I think that students characteristic is major issue in this course because students’ level is beginner. Not only instructor but also content should start to teach from the algebra of beginning level. And college students tend to less self-regulated and self-motivated than graduate students so the instructor should carefully design the online program which includes something interesting factors which can motivate learners. Students feel comfort toward technology because they have good technology skills. Students can follow the direction of the online instruction.

Course B

Content: The course is a philosophy of leadership class.

Instructor(s): The instructor is an experienced face-to-face instructor with good tech skills and prior online teaching experience. This instructor prefers lecture and discussion classes.

Students: Graduate students who are well motivated and with a broad range of technology skills, from average to very advanced.

Content : This class should be holistic and divergent which means there does not exist a correct answer and conducted discussion teaching style. Textbook includes more deep content for graduate students, but also explains well to understand easily.

Instructor: I think that content’s characteristic is important issue in this class because the philosophy class is more fuzzy and requires discussion between instructor and students.
The instructor can lead students well in this course because the instructor’s preference is to enjoy discussing with students, which mean that this type of interaction could deliver to students much clear information.

Student: Graduate students can deal with technology easily.

Course C

Content: This course is an introduction to college success. It teaches study skills, communication skills, and tries to help students learn how to fit into the college community.

Instructor(s): This course will be taught by various instructors all with good tech skills and prior online teaching experience but who have never taught this content before.

Students: Students are incoming freshman who have been identified by advisors as high risk for drop out.

Content: This class should be conducted by a divergent type due to the way to success in college life does not have a correct answer and each individual has a different standard in success. Also, content should be focused practically which can apply to their actual college life and holistic. textbook or material should offer interesting contents which can excite their interests.

Instructor: The instructor has a prior online teaching experience but he has never taught an introduction to college success. Thus, this instructor needs to catch such as what the instructor wants to teach(goal) or what is students’ needs in this class. The instructor should actively interact with students not only in class but also after class because students have a problem their school life.

Students: I think that students’ characteristic is major issue in this course because they are students who have some problem in their life, so the instructor could be hard to lead students. Thus, communication between the instructor and students is really important element in this class. Considering students’ characteristics, the instructor designs something which be able to communicate each other such as chat or providing an office hour to students. This class could be challengeable.
2. Now, think about an online learning experience that you might someday create. Describe in detail the content, instructor and student characteristics. What are the design issues or features that these suggest? Explain your answers.

Content: I am interested in industry and business education. Most companies teach various subject to their employees to improve company’s performance, for example, service, marketing, or self-development education. All students are adult learners so contents offer practical information which can apply to their real career field.

Students: All students could not have enough time to study and learning efficiency could be decreased because they work from early morning to night. Thus, instructor should consider students’ life patterns, students’ degree of motivation, and background knowledge.

Instructor: The instructor teaches students to arouse motivation to improve company’s efficiency. Because a range of age is 20-30 years old, it would be better to offer two way communication such as email or chat than one way knowledge.

3. List the 11 instructional design steps presented in chapter 1 of the text (Design Quickly and Reliably).
①Identify your underlying goals
-For your organization, what is the single most important measure of success?
-How will your project help accomplish that goal?
②Analyze learners’ needs and abilities
-motivate for learning
-psychomotor skills
-attitude and mindset
-mental discipline
-background knowledge and experience
-learning condition
-style of prior education
-communication skills
-social skills
-talents and intelligences
-media preferences
-locus of control
-digital fluency
③ Identify what to teach
-test to identify essential
-analyze the gap between real and ideal performance
-analyze how work is done
-ask those who should know
-analyzing critical incidents
-do not let the content committee decide
④Set learning objectives
-write your learning objectives
-what makes a good objectives; 1)clear 2)precise 3)worthy
-six type of objectives : primary-create, decide, do/ secondary-know, believe, feel
⑤Identify prerequisites
⑥Price the approach to meet each objective
⑦Decide the teaching sequence of your objective
⑧Create objects to accomplish objective
⑨Create test
⑩Select learning activities
⑪Choose media
     Then redesign again and again

Session 1 introduction

Introduction of Myself

             Hello. I am Hye su Kang. Let me introduce myself briefly. I am from South Korea. I am in Instructional Technology master’s program at California State University, San Bernardino now. And this is my second quarter. My undergraduate major was English, but I wanted to learn instructional technology since I was an undergraduate student. Thus, I am here in United States to study more widely and deeply about IT. I do not have teaching experience. However, I want to be a professor someday and, of course, teach instructional technology. I think that instructional technology is really interesting and attractive study. After last fall quarter was finished, I learned fundamental background about instructional technology. And my interest has sparked specifically on instructional design, soft ware design, and, web development. Through this class, I expect to learn how to design and develop effective online instructional programs. I look forward to take this course with my classmates. Thank you!

Session 1 Response to Prompts

distancelearningSession task 1

1. Explain the relationship between distance learning and online learning.

Distance learning and online learning are closely connected each other. Distance learning was arisen since 19 century and has conducted by using the internet which includes many strengths in interaction and communication between learner-learner, instructor-learner, and learner-content by developing the technology. Distance learning provides people who cannot attend to schools with education which uses online learning tools.

2. Discuss the main difference between distance learning and online learning.

Distance learning has started since 1700s for students who cannot attend school. And at that time, the correspondence primarily was utilized between instructor and learner. Distance learning started using the internet from 1980. And people are commonly easy to consider that distance learning is the same with an online learning because distance learning is processed via the internet nowadays. They definitely have similarities, however, these two kinds of educations are different. That is, distance learning is to instruct people who cannot be educated at schools due to geological reason via various medium. Online learning is the one of methods which can educate via the internet regardless of time and location. Distance learning is processed with not web but various learning materials such as internet, book, CD, and, video. It can be said that distance education has adopted by online learning tools. Distance learning and online learning are different concept. Many people are educated by distance learning because online learning has several advantages such as overcoming limitation of time and location, facilitating vitalization of interaction, providing various instructional materials by using multimedia, and leading active attitude of learners.

3. List the three types of interaction proposed by Moore (1989) and explain each type of interaction in your own words.

①Learner-content interaction : communication between learner and contents such as teaching materials which can make learners understand further.

②Learner-instructor interaction : interaction(communication) between learner and instructor about their classes and questions. Instructor should plan the curriculum for their classes and try to encourage learners.

③Learner-learner interaction : interaction between learner and learner, which be able to learn each others’ perspectives and valuable thoughts.

4. Discuss some of the differences between the early days of online learning and today. Then make some predictions about the future of e learning. Please include at least one good article/website/citation for this item.

Online learning is the one of education methods. In 1980s, online learning started first to educate employees who lived far from company in order to reduce costs. CALCampus which is a distance learning organization provided the online curriculum first in 1994 and more and more colleges and universities started to make online programs. However, the quality of education was lower than present due to there was a limitation of technology in early days. However, a computer and an internet have been developed rapidly from mid of 1990’s to 2000s. Thus, it became possible that instructors could record voice or a video via the webcam, and between learner and learner, learner and instructor could communicate each other in real time on the web. All assignments could be submitted via the internet and online education became more efficient and accessible compared to the past. As a result, the demand of online learning has increasing. National Center for Education Statistics estimated the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005. Also, Bates(2013) argues that “I expect to see online learning increasingly appearing as strategic initiatives within institutional plans. A good example of such a strategic approach is the University of Western Sydney, which has developed a detailed strategy for hybrid learning which includes the issuing of iPads to all first year students. I know at least five universities in Canada that are currently in the process of developing strategic initiatives or plans for online, hybrid or flexible learning. I know there are many more institutions out there starting to move in this direction.” It means we could expect that there will be more potential possibilities to increase online education in future.

Online learning: The Past, Present, and Future –

Allen, E. & Seaman, J.(2007).Online nation : Five years of growth in online learning –

Online learning Timeline –

History of Online Education –

video –

The future of online learning(Stephen Downes) –


Bates, T. (2013). Outlook for online learning in 2013: Online learning comes of age. Online             Learning and Distance Education Resources. Retrieved from