Session 8 Response to Prompts

1. List the two levels of testing as outlined in the presentation and discuss each one in turn. Then describe the types of testing activities for each level of testing.

 Harman and Meek(2000) define quality assurance as “systematic management and assessment procedures… to ensure achievement of quality outputs or improved quality” By going through quality assurance, online education could be expected to acquire not only trust but also more successful academic performance from students. According to this week materials, there are two methods to test online course. First, testing done to ensure the fidelity of the media used to present the material. This method is normally tested by creator of media about acceptable quality of material, for example, the course goals and objectives are measureable and clearly state what the student will know or be able to do at the end of the course, the course content and assignments are aligned with curriculum standards or nationally accepted standards for those course whose outcomes lead to certification, content and assignments are of sufficient rigor, depth and breadth to teach the standards and identified student learning outcomes, and course requirements are consistent with course goals, are representative of the scope of the course and are clearly stated. Second is testing done to ensure that the material presented leads to the desired student outcomes which is more complex as opposite to first method. During this test, media would be assessed whether  it is appropriate to achieve learners’ needs and expectation. In this level, media fidelity test will be tested by using HTML code, CSS coding, and ADA compliance.

▪Provide comprehensive technical testing and proofing of all course components; ensuring readiness for the start of term (each LMS/QA Specialist being assigned a number of re-offer courses across a range of disciplines each term by the Manager, Course Production).
→Update, change, or create HTML, scripting and CSS in all courses as necessary.
▪Implement instructor-directed course revisions:
→Make required changes to the master course materials and LMS shell setup.
→Make minor changes to online course content and pass major content changes to the
Manager, Course Production for Developer assignment.
→Judge which revision requests from instructors represent a change to the pedagogic
approach in the course, and flag these to the Manager, Course Production                         for assignment.

→Provide expertise and guidance to instructors engaged in the revision process, as it
pertains to the effective use of the LMS.
→Communicate clearly and effectively, collaborating with course authors/instructors
as required to meet course delivery objectives. Remain tactful but firm with
instructors to ensure timely feedback.
▪For revised materials, proofread and test content; check for consistency of terminology and formatting; check audio coherence within course concepts and provide feedback to Developer.
→Test for web accessibility and usability and keep abreast of industry standards, best
practice and advances in technology and techniques in these areas.
→Test all online components in various browsers and on various hardware platforms
and burn master CD. Alert technical support staff to problems as appropriate.
▪Review and discuss any changes or problems concerning the course with the course author (the instructor) and when appropriate with the Manager, Course Production.
▪Maintain a record of all course information, including that associated with revisions, in a shared database for all members of the Production Team.
▪Work closely with the CEL Systems group to troubleshoot and investigate system issues, and to keep informed of LMS upgrades and best practices.
▪Complete periodic implementation of cross-course system updates.
▪Assist with testing specific LMS functionality and troubleshooting of local issues.
▪Given exposure to all CEL online courses, identify best practices that exist in some courses and may be transferable to others, and flag these to the Course Production Team.
▪If required, assist with copyright clearance for any materials distributed with the course packages (print or online); this may include journal articles, newspaper clippings, art prints, maps, etc. This sometimes involves submitting a written request for permission, as well as follow up communication (verbal or written). The LMS/QA Specialist must ensure that all permissions are received and properly documented before the course materials are released for duplication and distribution.
▪Assist with maintenance of records about the status and cost of copyright permissions as well as renewal requirements and deadlines and limitations for international distribution.
▪Keep informed of developing laws regarding digital copyright.
▪If required, organize the preparation of printed or digital course materials, including:
→Coordinating textbook information with course instructors and liaising with the
Book Store to share information and place orders.
→Liaising with Graphics on copyright issues, books of readings, and course notes;
ensuring that the scanned copy of print materials stored on the Graphics system is
updated, and that materials are ready for duplication by established deadlines.

▪Contribute to the development of new online courses, as it pertains to the effective use of the LMS.
→Participate in the requirements analysis and design phases of course development, to
understand shared goals and needs.
→Provide LMS expertise to the project team, helping to inform design and
development decisions, such as those associated with:
∙Learning Activities within the LMS.
∙Assessment Strategies within the LMS.
∙User experience.
▪Complete the setup of specific LMS components of new online courses, where advanced knowledge/expertise is required, including: building of quizzes, question banks, grade book setup, creation of intelligent agents (further detailed in the CEL
▪Course Development Process Role Breakdown†)
▪Contribute to the evolution of the course development model and related processes, through participation in cross-functional working groups and standing committees such as CEL Operations and the Template Advisory Group.
▪Contribute to the development of LMS administration and content/data migration processes.
▪Provide training and support to new hires and junior staff within the Course Production group, as it pertains to the effective us of the LMS. Advise on proper LMS tool use. Promote the effective use of the LMS amongst those engaged in course development.
→Provide individual training and mentoring.
→Provide group training, as directed by the Manager, Course Production.
▪Lead Course Production projects and initiatives as assigned by the Manager, Course production.

Source from :

2. What is ADA and how does it apply to the design and development of e-Learning materials?

ADA is a abbreviation of Americans with Disabilities Act. This law is that to guarantee a disabled person’s rights as they use public service, convenient facilities, communication, transportation equally in 1990. Furthermore, this law has applied to education. In online education, instructional designer and instructor should pay attention regarding Americans with Disabilities Act when they design and develop their online course. For example, for a person who is visually impaired, instructional designers should use sufficient font size, consistent font styles, sizes, orientation, true numbered, bulleted list, true column, and avoid decorative fonts. Besides, for color-blind person, instructional designer or instructor use contrasting foreground and background colors, avoid busy patterns, plaids, or stripes. In addition, for a person who has seizure, use animation or motion only when necessary, provide alternative forms to present content, do not use flickering text or visual. According to the Sloan Consortium, they recommend ten practices for creating accessible online materials.

1. Consider multiple formats for content such as html, Microsoft word and PowerPoint, PDFs
2. Create PDFs with optical character recognition rather than as scanned images
3. Avoid cutting and pasting text from Microsoft word
4. Design for the web
5. Write for the web
6. Provide transcripts and/or captioning for audio and video files
7. Use template with built-in formatting with Microsoft word and PowerPoint; use styles with word
8. Provide instructor contact information in a prominent place
9. Use discussion board or email rather than chat as a primary form of communication
10.make friends with your disability services and instructional support staff; talk to a student who has a disability.

 3. What is your institutions (You may use CSUSB’s) policy towards ADA and eLearning? Explain what this means in practical terms and what you think the strengths and weaknesses of the policy.

I searched Americans with Disabilities Act policy and e-learning of California State University San Bernardino. However, it was hard to find information concerning ADA policy and e-learning. I think that CSUSB seems to provide service excellently for a disabled person because according to CSUSB’s homepage, it is explained detailedly like what kind of services will be offered, how students register a service, etc. For instance, CSUSB offers not only in-class aides, note-taking service, exam accommodations but also real-time captioning, qualified sign-language interpreters for blind or visual impaired, deaf or hearing impaired person, and person who has learning disability.


Furthermore, CSUSB states web Accessibility Implementation Plan below.

1. A process for auditing, monitoring and remediation of websites.
2. A process for establishing accountability and documentation procedures.
3. A strategy to ensure that new websites and web content incorporate accessibility in the design and authoring process.
4. A process for determining exceptions and for developing, documenting and communicating the equally effective alternate form of access that will be provided.
5. A process for identifying critical administrative websites that require remediation.
6. A process for providing alternative ways of delivering information during any period in which websites are undergoing retrofit.
7. A training plan for those who develop and maintain websites and who author web content.
8. A communication plan to educate the campus about web accessibility requirements.
9. An evaluation process to measure the effectiveness of the plan.
10. The identification of roles and responsibilities associated with the above processes.
11. Milestones and timelines that conform to the dates listed below.”

Moreover, here are Instructional Materials Accessibility Plan.
1. A process for timely adoption of textbooks by faculty.
2. A process for identification of textbooks for late-hire faculty.
3. A process for early identification of students with disabilities who require instructional materials to be provided in an alternate format.
4. A strategy to increase faculty use of the campus learning management system (LMS) for
delivering technology-enabled courses, and for posting syllabi and instructional materials online for traditional face-to-face and hybrid or blended courses.
5. A process to incorporate accessibility requirements in the purchase of digital or multimedia instructional materials (captions on videos, for example).
6. A method to incorporate accessibility as a required component in the curriculum review and approval processes.
7. A plan to support faculty in the creation of accessible course content.
8. A communication process and training plan to educate students, staff, and faculty about the campus Instructional Materials Accessibility Plan.
9. An evaluation process to measure the effectiveness of the plan.
10. The identification of roles and responsibilities associated with the above processes.
11. Milestones and timelines that conform to the dates listed below.

 I think that services for disabilities in California State University San Beranrdino are offered well and described information specifically on the web site. However, there was not mention specific information for ADA specifically on CSUSB ADA procedures and guidelines web site.

 4. Revisit the 11 instructional design steps presented in chapter 1 of the text (Design Quickly and Reliably).* Revise this 11 step system using what you now know about development and testing. Try to create your own instructional design process/template that you might actually use. Briefly explain your modifications.

1) Identify your underlying goal
2) Analyze learners’ needs and abilities
3) Identify what to teach
4) Set learning objectives
5) Identify prerequisites
6) Pick the approach to meet each objective
7) Decide the teaching sequence of your objectives
8) Create objects to accomplish objectives
9) Create tests
10) Select learning activities
11) Choose Media

Through this week topic, I had an opportunity to consider regarding our history online class again that we designed last time based on Americans with Disabilities Act. Looking back on it, I did not think at all regarding a disabled person at that time because it was a first time to design online class for us. The parts I want to modify are 1)analyzing learners’ need and abilities 2)creating tests 3)selecting learning activities 4)choosing media. First, in step 2(analyzing learners’ need and abilities), I will analyze not only students needs and ability but also a disabled students’ needs and ability because it is hard to watch materials on screen or listen audio for visual and deaf impaired students. Instructional designer and instructor should deeply consider their situations specifically. Second, when instructional designer and instructor create test such as formative/summative test, mid-term, final exam, and quiz they should use text file that a disabled person can perceive(recognize) materials on screen easily. Third, in selecting learning activity step, our class will provide disabled students with scripts with all audio and video files. In final step, instructional designer and instructor should decide media considering disabled students.


Mcnaught, C. (2002). Quality assurance for online courses: Implementing policy at RMIT.                Technology Sourse, 435-442
Harman, G., & Meek, V. K.(2000). Repositioning quality assurance and accreditation in                      Australian higher education. Evaluations and Investigations Program Report 00/2.                    Canberra: Higher Education Division Department of Employment, Education, Training            and Youth Affairs.



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