Session 10 Response to Prompts

1. Identify five key concepts or themes related to e-Learning Design and Development and explain what you know about each.
I think that five key concepts related to e-learning design and development are what I learned through ETEC541 this quarter. I think five key themes are interaction, educational game and simulation, absorb, do, and connect activity, mobile learning, and testing in e-learning design and dvelopment.    week10-pic          First is interaction. I believe that students’ learning cannot be occurred appropriately without interaction in not only face-to-face but also e-learning education. Pena-Shaff et al.(2001) state that “the use of interactions is considered an important factor in teaching and learning via computer-mediated communication settings.” (p.51)Therefore, I think interaction should be considered when instructional designers design and develop e-learning. Interaction is divided into three categories: instructor and learners, learners and learners, and content and learners. First, interaction between instructor and learners is literally to communication with instructor and learners and it is significantly important in e-learning education. Chickering and Gamson (1987) mention that “feedback from instructor helps students focus their learning, incorporates affirmations of beginning assessments of student knowledge and competence, provides students opportunities to perform, suggests improvements, and encourages student self-reflection and assessment of their own learning.” (p.66) In e-learning environment, e-mail and Skype could be utilized for interacting with instructor.  Second, interaction between learners and content should be considered when instructional designers design and develop e-learning as well. According to Kress(2001), “content interaction also brings into play multimedia and multimodal communication, with sensory learning through audio, visual and stimulation resources creating new possibilities for understanding and control.” (as cited in Thorpe and Godwin, p. p.205) E-material, Microsoft Word, PDF, or video could be used for interaction between content and learner. Third, interaction between learner and learner. learners can share perceptions from other classmates and expand knowledge by discussing with them. Blog, Skype, and e-mail could be utilized for interaction between learners.  Among the text-based electronic media, the online discussion board is the most widely used medium for facilitating learners-learner interaction. In this platform, instructors expect to construct a collaborative learning environment where learners can share their intrinsic learning experiences and negotiate with a common understanding for certain tasks. (Moore and Kearsley, 2005) Thus, interaction is vital concept in e-learning.

Second is educational game and simulation. I believe that educational game and simulation in e-learning play important roles to reinforce learners’ knowledge. According to my experience, I could understand more and memorize easily regarding a concept and content when I played educational games after I took a lecture. Therefore, this concept is important in e-learning design and development. Kiilli(2005) mentions that “an engaging educational game should not only provide course content, but also con facilitate the flow of experiences of students” (p.196)

Third is absorb, do, and connect activity. I think that these three concepts have to be occurred in students’ learning process. Absorb activity is to understand and absorb knowledge and information by reading and listening contents. Absorb activity includes several activities such as presentation, reading, stories by a teacher, and field trip. Horton(2011) mentions that “in well-designed absorb activities, learners also consider, select, combine, judge, and process information.” (p.127) Do activity is to connect not only information and knowledge but also explanations and skill. This activity includes practice, discovery, games and simulation. Learners can reinforce their knowledge they gained through absorb activity. Horton says that “they put brains into action, exploring, discovering, practicing, refining, and perfecting knowledge and skill.” (p.161) Connect activity helps students deepen their knowledge by using critical thinking. Connect activity includes ponder, job aid, research, and original work. Absorb, do, and connect activity make students’ knowledge more structured. Therefore, instructional designers should consider regarding these three activities when they design and develop e-learning.
week10-pic3          Fourth concept is mobile learning. Most students have their own mobile phone nowadays by developing technology and science. Therefore, e-learners study with their mobile phone so that we could expect a positive consequence from learners. Mobile learning can not only expand students’ learning but also study without time and place restriction. Kukulska-Hulme, Sharple, Milrad, Arnedillo-Sanchez, and Vavoula(2009) mention that “…the mobile technology, while essential, is only one of the different types of technology and interaction employed. The learning experiences cross spatial, temporal and/conceptual borders and involve interactions with fixed technologies as well as mobile devices. Weaving the interactions with mobile technology into the rubric of pedagogical interaction that develops around them become the focus of attention.” (p.8)week10-pic4               Final theme is testing. Testing is necessary in e-learning environment and plays important role not only instructor but also learners. Learners could check their progress through test and motivate from grade of test. Furthermore, students could assess what they learn.

2. Speculate on the future of eLearning and what your role in that future might be.
Nowadays, demand of e-learning has been increasing in not only pre-k, K-12, and high education but also army, medical, and business/industry setting. I believe that e-learning has potential future by developing technology and internet. I think I have sense of duty to develop e-learning field as a student learning instructional technology. Of course, I believe there is no doubt that e-learning is still developing and will develop, however, e-learning faces several problems such as technical, assessment, and interaction problem. Let’s take an interaction problem example, because e-learning courses are occurring in cyberspace without meeting with people in reality, it is clear that there might exist difficulties toward communication between instructor and students. In Sull’s(2008) research, he conducted a survey of more than 300 online students and found “68 percent of the students respond [that as online students] they have poor feedback from their instructors” Because of such problematic e-learning issue, students cannot be expected high academic performance due to this lack of important interaction between instructor and learners. If these problems of e-learning were not solved, I think such problems could be a huge obstacle to develop an e-learning field. Therefore, my future role I think that I will keep continuing research regarding e-learning design in order to provide an optimal education and effective curriculum to students. Furthermore, I will also provide program which could cover above problems in future.

3. Revise the eLearning development template/instructional design process you developed earlier for yourself. Be sure to:
Target audience of my e-learning course is middle school student. However, although the target audience is specifically identified, it is not technically limited because there may many adults who cannot use functions of multiplication, subtraction, division, and plus in Excel program. This course may be needed instructional designer, ADA advisor, scriptwriter, subject matter expert(SME), graphic designer, learning management system expert, content reviewers, and course reviewers in order to develop this course.

a) List all of the roles of people who will be involved in the typical development.
1. Instructional Designer
Instructional designer plays role that consider all variables and analyze learners’ needs, objectives, ability, and prerequisite with instructor. Furthermore, he or she should has a close relationship with instructor and subject matter expert to deliver effective curriculum and contents to students. They will meet frequently in development stage. Instructional designers develop a curriculum design, program planning, and the effectiveness of testing and learner retention.
2. Instructor
Instructor is a real teacher. Instructor has to communicate with instructional designers regarding his or her preferences, objectives, and underlying goals to deliver an optimal education to students.
3. ADA advisor
ADA advisor will give advise scriptwriter, graphic designer, and instructor regarding what functions are required in a course design and how to develop materials for disabled students.
4. Scriptwriter
The script will offer a narration, development notes, course branching directions, and quiz questions because labels and instructions will be displayed on the screen in this course.
5. Subject Matter Expert(SME)
Subject Matter Expert should consider regarding the topic of this course. Moreover, SME should frequently communicate with instructional designer.
6. Graphic designer
Graphic designer will create graphics and image during the development process.
7. Learning Management System (LMS) Expert
LMS expert will control overall development step. He or she is responsible for uploading of the course into the LMS, the association with the appropriate curriculum, and ensuring the appropriate rights are assigned to the course or intended users so that the audience may access the course without difficulty.
9. Content Reviewers
Content reviewers will review our course and provide feedback regarding accuracy and completeness of the course.
10. Course Reviewers
Course reviewers will review the course and provide feedback regarding hot the content is being received from a potential learner.

#9 and #10 could be conducted after complete development process.

b) Identify your role.
My role is instructional designer in this project. I will analyze learners’ needs, objective, abilities with instructor. Also, I should try to maintain a close relationship with all coworkers because I need to collect their ideas. In addition, I will develop a curriculum design, program planning, and the effectiveness of testing and learner retention.

c) Explain the type of courses or other eLearning development the template is for (higher education course, corporate training etc.)
This type of course is for middle school students.

d) Provide a clear label for all included elements.
1) Instructor will identify underlying goals, what to teach, and who is a target audience.
2) Instructor and instructional designer will analyze learners’ needs and abilities.
3) ADA adviser will give advice regarding policy for disabled students to instructional designer and graphic designer. (How to provide disabled students with web and contents)
4) Instructor will set learning objective.
5) Instructor and instructional designer will choose learning activities meet each objectives.
6) Instructor and instructional designer will create objects to accomplish objectives.
7) Instructor and instructional designer will decide the teaching sequence of this course objectives.
8) Create tests
9) Choose media

e) Provide a clear description of each included element.
It is described in a).

f) Provide a narrative explaining how the template would be used
Instructional design cannot be perfect even if instructional designers complete above nine steps once completely because there exist numerous variables in real educational situation. Thus, instructional design should be kept continuing revise and develop back and forth based on variables. Therefore, instructional designers and other people who is involved in instructional design process could be confused because this process is kind of complex. This instructional design and template could let them know concerning where they are and what is a next step clearly.
Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 1991(47), 63-69
Hockly, N.(2013). Mobile learning. Elt Journal, 67(1), 80-84
Kiili, K.(2005). Content creation challenges and flow experience in educational games: The IT-emperor case. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(3), 183-198
Kukulska-Hulme, A., Sahrples, M., Milrad, M., Inmachlada, A. S., & Vavoula, G.(2009). Innovation in mobile learning: A European perspective. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 1(1), 13-35
Pena-Shaff, J., Martin, W., & Gay, G.(2001). An epistemological framework for analyzing student interactions in computer mediated communication environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12(1), 41-68
Sull, E. C. (2007). Overcoming the #1 complaint of online students: Poor instructor feedback. Higher Ed Teaching Strategies from Magna Publications
Thorpe, M., & Godwin, S.(2001). Interaction and e-learning: The student experience. Studies in Continuing Education, 28(3), 203-221
Moore, M., & Kearsley, G.(2005). Distance education: A systems view(2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Horton, William. E-Learning by Design (Second Edition). (2011) San Francisco: Pfeiffer.


Session 9 Response to Prompts

1. Define the terms “Game” and “Simulation” as they relate to e-Learning.

I believe game and simulation in education are significantly potential because students could participate in class voluntarily, moreover, game and simulation help to better understand, improve learning, and motivating by applying game and simulation to education. However, I could not figure out the definitions of these two terminologies “Game and Simulation” because I thought that there exist more similarities than differences between them. Yet, I could understand clearly characteristics and definitions of game and simulation through Horton’s(2011) book, several literature, and articles.


 My understanding is that game is able to let expand and reinforce learners’ knowledge by doing game in virtual world with educational objective. For example, students could be tested their factual knowledge and given feedback through such word game, jigsaw puzzle, and quiz-show. Suave, Renaud, Kaufman, and Marguis(2007) indicate very specific definition in terms of game, they state that “a game is a fictitious, whimsical or artificial situation in which players are put in a position of confliction. Games are governed by rules which structure their actions in view of an objective or a purpose which is to win, to be victorious or to overcome an obstacle. They are integrated into an educational context when the learning objectives are associated formally to the content and the games enhances learning in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains.” (p.253)


Simulation is (slightly different to game) to embody realistic elements in virtual world so that learners can have various experiences indirectly. However, all indirect games are not called simulation game. Only few games which have realistic factors fully can be simulation. Suave, Renaud, Kaufman, and Marguis(2007) define simulation as “a simplified, dynamic and precise representation of reality defined as a system. A simulation is a dynamic and simplified model of reality and it is judged by its realism, by its correspondence to the system which it presents.” (p.253) Let’s take software simulation example from Horton’s book. I created a system data source name via this simulation. This simulation game is to show as if seeing real excel software program in reality. Moreover, it provided learners with objective, simulation procedures, grading method, feedback through instruction so I could understand clearly regarding this simulation game. I learned how to create DSN via this simulation game, therefore I have confidence creating DSN. By applying simulation to education, learners can practice, expand, and reinforce their knowledge through indirect experience regarding what they will face real situation in reality in future.

 You can see software simulation(creating data source name) I mentioned above via this URL.

 2. What are the key characteristics of a Simulation?

Simulation have four characteristics. First, simulation is embodied by real world factors on a virtual world. Therefore, simulation has applied to various field such as computer, flight, and driving training which are required realistic elements. Additionally, students who take a chemistry class experiment via computer simulation game because some chemical substances are dangerous. Second, learners can decide next step with critical thinking. In simulation, because main player is learners, students should decide next step by considering what consequence will be followed if learners choose this or is this answer related to a question. Third, students could receive authentic feedback via simulation because simulation is based on reality. Experts have various experiences could give invaluable feedback. Such primary simulation’s characteristics, learners’ retention is more great and learners could more understand deeply.

 3. What are some of the strengths or advantages of Games and Simulations in eLearning?

▪ Strengths of Games

According to Horton’s textbook, game and simulation have eight advantages. First, game and simulation show consequences not normally visible. Students can learn specifically concerning what people cannot catch well in reality by delivering sequences by step by step through simulation. Second, let learners make mistakes without suffering permanent consequences. Students learn by mistakes repeatedly, therefore they could avoid same mistakes in real situation. Third, simulation encourages learners to pause, reflect, and revise. Because all educational games have purposes to deliver knowledge to students, learners could have opportunities to challenge again as opposite of reality, thus student could improve their knowledge by repeating pause, reflect, and revise step. Fourth, game and simulation provide a laboratory. Students can experiment various hypothesis which would be occurred in reality in virtual environment. Fifth, game and simulation simplify complex situations. Other obstacle factors are eliminated by instructional designers on purpose in order to let students do focus only the problems. Six, game and simulation give opportunities for abundant practices and feedback. Students could practice several times, and gain feedback from instructor promptly because game and simulation are not real situation. Seventh, students are reawaken learning by play. Finally, students could engage voluntarily in class. I think this characteristic is significantly important because always attracting learners’ curiosity(motivation) is really hard in education.

 4. What are some of the weaknesses or disadvantages of Games and Simulations in eLearning?

According to Horton in the text book, game and simulation have some disadvantages. First is to be able to face financial problem in process of game development because, for example, such subjects brain surgeon, nuclear power plant operators, and stock market investors are required highly professional high knowledge and skill. Second, game and simulation could cause mental effects. According to studies from Newman University College in Birmingham, “wanting to play until they win or advance in the game can cause low self-esteem or aggressive behavior, especially if children keep losing at the game. Additionally, because these games can become so addicting, overuse can cause social isolation and poor social skills.”


5. Pick a topic and describe a game or a simulation that would be an effective learning activity.

I believe that simulation in education is really helpful not only to practice realistic problems but also deliver knowledge to students effectively. I will provide students with how to multiply, subtract, divide, and plus by using Excel software program. Although the target audience of this course is middle school students, it is not technically limited. In addition, all courses are delivered by online and I will design this simulation alike real Excel software program we can see on real computer screen. First, I will deliver regarding objectives, assigned time and chance, grading method, a way of feedback clearly through instruction in order to not confused students. Especially, instructors have to mention regarding objectives of simulation because all educational games have a purpose, therefore students could solve the problems under considering their goal. Second, I will show screen shot recorded video regarding a multiply, subtract, divide, and plus method and give questions. This course will offer three minutes and three chances to complete questions by themselves. Questions will be more hard if students correct answers, but if students miss answers, score and chances will be declined. Moreover, coach will give feedback if students use three chances. Learners are able to use in real situation after students complete this simulation. I believe that such simulation games should be required a sufficient explanation regarding a course before starting lectures.

 6. Describe the development process you would use to create the game or simulation described above.

This class content is about plus, subtraction, multiplication, and division in Excel software program. Before designing this game, I will consider learners’ needs and decide objectives and underlying goals. In this simulation, the objective is that students can plus, subtract, multiply, and divide in real life. I will deliver instruction which is included objectives, indicators of game state, feedback, and grading method clearly. Moreover, I will utilize screen shot recorded video and text file in order that students can follow sequences easily and adjust pace of video by considering learners’ interface. And I will display labels and instructions on the screen, moreover, I will use sound and graphic effect when learners correct or miss answers because students could be bored. Furthermore, students are given feedback promptly from instructor.

According to Horton’s book, he suggests following development process:
▪Specify the game’s world
▪Specify characters and important objects
▪Create a storyline
▪Create a back story
▪Specify the game structure
▪Assign the learners’ role
▪Specify rules of the game
▪Design a rich, realistic environment
▪Provide a deep, unifying challenge
▪Define indicators of game state and feedback (pp.346-352)


Adam, C.(2012). The disadvantages of using games as a learning tool. Retrieved from

Horton, William. E-Learning by Design (Second Edition). (2011) San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Sauve, L., Renaud, L., Kaufman, D., & Marquis, J. S.(2007). Distinguishing between games and simulations: A systematic review. Educational Technology & Society, 10(3), 247-256

Session 8 Response to Prompts

1. List the two levels of testing as outlined in the presentation and discuss each one in turn. Then describe the types of testing activities for each level of testing.

 Harman and Meek(2000) define quality assurance as “systematic management and assessment procedures… to ensure achievement of quality outputs or improved quality” By going through quality assurance, online education could be expected to acquire not only trust but also more successful academic performance from students. According to this week materials, there are two methods to test online course. First, testing done to ensure the fidelity of the media used to present the material. This method is normally tested by creator of media about acceptable quality of material, for example, the course goals and objectives are measureable and clearly state what the student will know or be able to do at the end of the course, the course content and assignments are aligned with curriculum standards or nationally accepted standards for those course whose outcomes lead to certification, content and assignments are of sufficient rigor, depth and breadth to teach the standards and identified student learning outcomes, and course requirements are consistent with course goals, are representative of the scope of the course and are clearly stated. Second is testing done to ensure that the material presented leads to the desired student outcomes which is more complex as opposite to first method. During this test, media would be assessed whether  it is appropriate to achieve learners’ needs and expectation. In this level, media fidelity test will be tested by using HTML code, CSS coding, and ADA compliance.

▪Provide comprehensive technical testing and proofing of all course components; ensuring readiness for the start of term (each LMS/QA Specialist being assigned a number of re-offer courses across a range of disciplines each term by the Manager, Course Production).
→Update, change, or create HTML, scripting and CSS in all courses as necessary.
▪Implement instructor-directed course revisions:
→Make required changes to the master course materials and LMS shell setup.
→Make minor changes to online course content and pass major content changes to the
Manager, Course Production for Developer assignment.
→Judge which revision requests from instructors represent a change to the pedagogic
approach in the course, and flag these to the Manager, Course Production                         for assignment.

→Provide expertise and guidance to instructors engaged in the revision process, as it
pertains to the effective use of the LMS.
→Communicate clearly and effectively, collaborating with course authors/instructors
as required to meet course delivery objectives. Remain tactful but firm with
instructors to ensure timely feedback.
▪For revised materials, proofread and test content; check for consistency of terminology and formatting; check audio coherence within course concepts and provide feedback to Developer.
→Test for web accessibility and usability and keep abreast of industry standards, best
practice and advances in technology and techniques in these areas.
→Test all online components in various browsers and on various hardware platforms
and burn master CD. Alert technical support staff to problems as appropriate.
▪Review and discuss any changes or problems concerning the course with the course author (the instructor) and when appropriate with the Manager, Course Production.
▪Maintain a record of all course information, including that associated with revisions, in a shared database for all members of the Production Team.
▪Work closely with the CEL Systems group to troubleshoot and investigate system issues, and to keep informed of LMS upgrades and best practices.
▪Complete periodic implementation of cross-course system updates.
▪Assist with testing specific LMS functionality and troubleshooting of local issues.
▪Given exposure to all CEL online courses, identify best practices that exist in some courses and may be transferable to others, and flag these to the Course Production Team.
▪If required, assist with copyright clearance for any materials distributed with the course packages (print or online); this may include journal articles, newspaper clippings, art prints, maps, etc. This sometimes involves submitting a written request for permission, as well as follow up communication (verbal or written). The LMS/QA Specialist must ensure that all permissions are received and properly documented before the course materials are released for duplication and distribution.
▪Assist with maintenance of records about the status and cost of copyright permissions as well as renewal requirements and deadlines and limitations for international distribution.
▪Keep informed of developing laws regarding digital copyright.
▪If required, organize the preparation of printed or digital course materials, including:
→Coordinating textbook information with course instructors and liaising with the
Book Store to share information and place orders.
→Liaising with Graphics on copyright issues, books of readings, and course notes;
ensuring that the scanned copy of print materials stored on the Graphics system is
updated, and that materials are ready for duplication by established deadlines.

▪Contribute to the development of new online courses, as it pertains to the effective use of the LMS.
→Participate in the requirements analysis and design phases of course development, to
understand shared goals and needs.
→Provide LMS expertise to the project team, helping to inform design and
development decisions, such as those associated with:
∙Learning Activities within the LMS.
∙Assessment Strategies within the LMS.
∙User experience.
▪Complete the setup of specific LMS components of new online courses, where advanced knowledge/expertise is required, including: building of quizzes, question banks, grade book setup, creation of intelligent agents (further detailed in the CEL
▪Course Development Process Role Breakdown†)
▪Contribute to the evolution of the course development model and related processes, through participation in cross-functional working groups and standing committees such as CEL Operations and the Template Advisory Group.
▪Contribute to the development of LMS administration and content/data migration processes.
▪Provide training and support to new hires and junior staff within the Course Production group, as it pertains to the effective us of the LMS. Advise on proper LMS tool use. Promote the effective use of the LMS amongst those engaged in course development.
→Provide individual training and mentoring.
→Provide group training, as directed by the Manager, Course Production.
▪Lead Course Production projects and initiatives as assigned by the Manager, Course production.

Source from :

2. What is ADA and how does it apply to the design and development of e-Learning materials?

ADA is a abbreviation of Americans with Disabilities Act. This law is that to guarantee a disabled person’s rights as they use public service, convenient facilities, communication, transportation equally in 1990. Furthermore, this law has applied to education. In online education, instructional designer and instructor should pay attention regarding Americans with Disabilities Act when they design and develop their online course. For example, for a person who is visually impaired, instructional designers should use sufficient font size, consistent font styles, sizes, orientation, true numbered, bulleted list, true column, and avoid decorative fonts. Besides, for color-blind person, instructional designer or instructor use contrasting foreground and background colors, avoid busy patterns, plaids, or stripes. In addition, for a person who has seizure, use animation or motion only when necessary, provide alternative forms to present content, do not use flickering text or visual. According to the Sloan Consortium, they recommend ten practices for creating accessible online materials.

1. Consider multiple formats for content such as html, Microsoft word and PowerPoint, PDFs
2. Create PDFs with optical character recognition rather than as scanned images
3. Avoid cutting and pasting text from Microsoft word
4. Design for the web
5. Write for the web
6. Provide transcripts and/or captioning for audio and video files
7. Use template with built-in formatting with Microsoft word and PowerPoint; use styles with word
8. Provide instructor contact information in a prominent place
9. Use discussion board or email rather than chat as a primary form of communication
10.make friends with your disability services and instructional support staff; talk to a student who has a disability.

 3. What is your institutions (You may use CSUSB’s) policy towards ADA and eLearning? Explain what this means in practical terms and what you think the strengths and weaknesses of the policy.

I searched Americans with Disabilities Act policy and e-learning of California State University San Bernardino. However, it was hard to find information concerning ADA policy and e-learning. I think that CSUSB seems to provide service excellently for a disabled person because according to CSUSB’s homepage, it is explained detailedly like what kind of services will be offered, how students register a service, etc. For instance, CSUSB offers not only in-class aides, note-taking service, exam accommodations but also real-time captioning, qualified sign-language interpreters for blind or visual impaired, deaf or hearing impaired person, and person who has learning disability.


Furthermore, CSUSB states web Accessibility Implementation Plan below.

1. A process for auditing, monitoring and remediation of websites.
2. A process for establishing accountability and documentation procedures.
3. A strategy to ensure that new websites and web content incorporate accessibility in the design and authoring process.
4. A process for determining exceptions and for developing, documenting and communicating the equally effective alternate form of access that will be provided.
5. A process for identifying critical administrative websites that require remediation.
6. A process for providing alternative ways of delivering information during any period in which websites are undergoing retrofit.
7. A training plan for those who develop and maintain websites and who author web content.
8. A communication plan to educate the campus about web accessibility requirements.
9. An evaluation process to measure the effectiveness of the plan.
10. The identification of roles and responsibilities associated with the above processes.
11. Milestones and timelines that conform to the dates listed below.”

Moreover, here are Instructional Materials Accessibility Plan.
1. A process for timely adoption of textbooks by faculty.
2. A process for identification of textbooks for late-hire faculty.
3. A process for early identification of students with disabilities who require instructional materials to be provided in an alternate format.
4. A strategy to increase faculty use of the campus learning management system (LMS) for
delivering technology-enabled courses, and for posting syllabi and instructional materials online for traditional face-to-face and hybrid or blended courses.
5. A process to incorporate accessibility requirements in the purchase of digital or multimedia instructional materials (captions on videos, for example).
6. A method to incorporate accessibility as a required component in the curriculum review and approval processes.
7. A plan to support faculty in the creation of accessible course content.
8. A communication process and training plan to educate students, staff, and faculty about the campus Instructional Materials Accessibility Plan.
9. An evaluation process to measure the effectiveness of the plan.
10. The identification of roles and responsibilities associated with the above processes.
11. Milestones and timelines that conform to the dates listed below.

 I think that services for disabilities in California State University San Beranrdino are offered well and described information specifically on the web site. However, there was not mention specific information for ADA specifically on CSUSB ADA procedures and guidelines web site.

 4. Revisit the 11 instructional design steps presented in chapter 1 of the text (Design Quickly and Reliably).* Revise this 11 step system using what you now know about development and testing. Try to create your own instructional design process/template that you might actually use. Briefly explain your modifications.

1) Identify your underlying goal
2) Analyze learners’ needs and abilities
3) Identify what to teach
4) Set learning objectives
5) Identify prerequisites
6) Pick the approach to meet each objective
7) Decide the teaching sequence of your objectives
8) Create objects to accomplish objectives
9) Create tests
10) Select learning activities
11) Choose Media

Through this week topic, I had an opportunity to consider regarding our history online class again that we designed last time based on Americans with Disabilities Act. Looking back on it, I did not think at all regarding a disabled person at that time because it was a first time to design online class for us. The parts I want to modify are 1)analyzing learners’ need and abilities 2)creating tests 3)selecting learning activities 4)choosing media. First, in step 2(analyzing learners’ need and abilities), I will analyze not only students needs and ability but also a disabled students’ needs and ability because it is hard to watch materials on screen or listen audio for visual and deaf impaired students. Instructional designer and instructor should deeply consider their situations specifically. Second, when instructional designer and instructor create test such as formative/summative test, mid-term, final exam, and quiz they should use text file that a disabled person can perceive(recognize) materials on screen easily. Third, in selecting learning activity step, our class will provide disabled students with scripts with all audio and video files. In final step, instructional designer and instructor should decide media considering disabled students.


Mcnaught, C. (2002). Quality assurance for online courses: Implementing policy at RMIT.                Technology Sourse, 435-442
Harman, G., & Meek, V. K.(2000). Repositioning quality assurance and accreditation in                      Australian higher education. Evaluations and Investigations Program Report 00/2.                    Canberra: Higher Education Division Department of Employment, Education, Training            and Youth Affairs.


Session 7 Response to Prompts


1. Why is media selection important in eLearning?

Selecting media in e-learning is really important step because e-learning education relies on technologies as opposite to traditional education. Because such discussion board, Skype, podcast, and steaming media have different features respectively, instructor and instructional designer should choose appropriate media carefully after they analyze regarding what contents will be delivered, who is target audience, and what are preferences of learners and instructor. E-learning environment is different a lot with face-to-face education so that instructor and instructional designer have to deeply consider toward media selection for their e-learning course. I think that the most basic requisitions of educational environment are interaction between learner-instructor, learner-learner, and content delivery to learners. Therefore, I believe that the role of media in e-learning education is really powerful. According to Holden and Westfull (2009), “media selection ensures that a specific distributed instructional medium can support the attainment of the desired learning objectives.” (p.4) Thus, media selection is important in e-learning. Furthermore, Huddleston and Pike(2007) indicate that instructor and instructional designer should consider seven areas such as learning task, media attributes, grouping strategy, learning context, learner characteristic, instructional managements, and cost effectiveness when they select media for e-learning course.

2. Define “new media”?

I think that new media is not one way such as newspaper, magazine, and television but bilateral way so that all users can produce data and share information each other in the cyber world and new media is more user-centered. According to this week materials, new media has main features such as availability of bandwidth, increased production through greater availability of digital media and cheap storage space. For these positive features, nowadays, a lot of new media based on web2.0 have been developing so that many e-learning instructors use Edmodo, Youtube, WordPress, Wikipedia, and Flickr. Thus, learners can upload files freely, communicate with classmates, and search immense outsource data from Youtube, online library, etc.

3. Choose a “new media” and explain it’s strengths and weaknesses for supporting eLearning.

YouTube is one of new media which has used a lot in e-learning environment. There are several advantages by using Youtube in e-learning, first, instructor can bring and share contents easily by coping Youtube’s embed feature and pasting instructor’s HTML code. Thus, instructor can help students not only understand further and reinforce students’ learning by providing more various informative sources but also motivate from this audio-visual materials. Second, learners can watch Youtube with their mobile phone. By developing science and technology, most students have their own phones so that students can search information easily and watch Youtube video via mobile in anytime and everywhere. Third, sharing Youtube video with classmate could encourage learners’ participation. According to Karimi(2006), “Education using multimedia and other visual aids has always been a strengthening component of many subjects’ curriculum, and today’s educators are taking steps to incorporate the internet and media-based tools to improve participation and learning.” Disadvantages in e-learning are, first, YouTube does not have restriction on comments, therefore students could be easy to be exposed to bad language, violent threats, and pornographic materials. Thus, instructor should provide Youtube video after he or she checks regarding this weakness. Second, learners should wait at the beginning of video because of advertisement. It could hinder learners’ attention.

4. Explain the term “Mobile Learning” and discuss the importance of “Mobile Learning in the current eLearning environment and in future eLearning environments.

I think that mobile learning is to be occurred education in anywhere and anytime through technology tools. Sharples, Milrad, Arnedillo, and Vavoula(2009) define mobile learning as “the processes(both personal and public) of coming to know through exploration and conversation across multiple contexts among people and interactive technologies” (as cited in Hockly, p.80) Additionally, Jiugen, Ruonan, and Jianmin (2010) indicate that “mobile learning is a new learning technique using mobile network and tools, expanding digital learning channel, gaining educational services, educational information and educational resources anywhere at any time” The demand of mobile learning has increasing and some scholars state that mobile learning is extension of e-learning education. Mobile learning gives several benefits to students. According to Armatas et al, (2005), “1)Deliver multimedia materials designed specifically for mobile devices 2)deliver interactive task 3)Add value and incentive to attend and actively participate in lectures 4)Allow students to browse what is available in the online environment 5)Break communication bottlenecks by communicating directly with students encourage student to discover principles for themselves. 6)In order to transform learners from passive recipients of information to active constructors of knowledge. Within the mobile learning framework, the instructors give the students an environment in which to participate in the learning process, and the tools to work with that knowledge.” Therefore, mobile using in e-learning gives many advantages to students. And I believe that more people and a lot of institutes will use smart phone in education in future.

5. Explain the term “Virtual Classroom”. Describe how a “Virtual Classroom” can be used in eLearning.

Virtual classroom is more like face-to-face class setting. It can be used in e-learning environment by conducting collaboration and interaction between students-students, students-instructor, and students-content, and other factors through tools. For example, learners can collaborate one another by using discussion board,, and Skype for collaboration(group work). Moreover, Skype, E-mail, blog, discussion board, media, and lecture could be utilized in e-learning environment for interaction between students, student-instructor, and student-content so that learners could discuss each other and share their ideas with critical thinking. I think that e-learning education could not be conducted perfectly same as virtual classroom because e-learning education utilizes technologies. However, many scholars have researched in order to improve learners academic achievement in e-learning environment, therefore, we could expect to realize e-learning could surpass virtual classroom in future.


Armatas, C., Holt, D., & Rice, M. (2005). Balancing the possibilities for mobile technologies          in higher education, 17-35

Hockly, N. Mobile learning. Elt Journla, 67(1), 80-84

Holden, J. T., & Westfall, P. J. L. (2009). And instructional media selection guide for distance  learning. United States Distance Learning Association, 1-34

Huddlestone, J., & Pike, J. (2006). Seven key decision factors for selecting e-learning.       Cognition, Technology & Work, 10(3), 237-247

Jiugen, Y., Ruonan, X., & Jianmin, W. (2010). Applying research of mobile learning mode in teaching. International Forum on Information Technology and Applications, 3, 417- 420

Karimi, S. (2006). The value of E-learning with Youtube: Video sharing for education. Yahoo  contributor network. Retrieved from       youtube-video-sharing-84540.html?cat=35

Session 6 Response to Prompts

1. Describe an “Absorb” type activity for one of the objectives in the course plan your team developed.

  •   Lectures
  •   Reading materials(articles)
  •   Outside sources(optional)

In absorb type activity, our “The History of Western Civilization to 1650” course will provide learners with above three activities. All lectures will be delivered with online materials such as online-textbook, notes, and power point simultaneously so that learners can memorize and organize knowledge easily. The main objectives of lectures is to understand fundamental knowledge regarding topics, meanwhile the goal of reading is not only to acquire deep knowledge about topics but also enhance readers’ comprehensions. According to Horton (2012), “reading may be a more active learning experience than some learning games, especially as the learner skims, peruses, reads, imagines, compares, re-reads, jots notes, makes bookmarks, and reflects. “(p.94) Furthermore, Faust and Glenzer (2000) mention that “the reading strategy helps students obtain meaning of their favorite readings sections and makes meaning with texts.” In addition, Millis and King (2001) conducted research and found that “rereading improved their comprehension and retention of ill-structured information.” Moreover, if students have curiosity or want to know, learners can search literature articles, internet resource, online library.

2. Describe a “Do” type activity for one of the objectives in the course plan your team developed.

  •   Write two papers

As a Do type activity, students have to submit two papers during the course. The objective of this activity is to fully understand concerning topics and express or explain with their own thinking and perspective by using critical thinking. Also, students’ learning ability  could be reinforced by the knowledge which is formed through absorb activity is connected with Do activity in real world. Additionally, learners could have self-confidence through this activity. Instructor will notice requirements(standards) for paper work; 1)utilize at least five citations from peer reviewed literature 2)APA style 3)appropriate English writing skill 4)5-6 pages. If learners upload their papers on Blackboard, instructor will read carefully students’ writing and then give feedback.

3. Describe a “Connect” type activity for one of the objectives in the course plan your team developed.

  •   Discussion participation

In this course, we will use discussion activity as a connect type activity. The primary goal of discussion is to broad learners’ view and deepen thoughts by discussing with classmates. Students have to make discussion threads at least five posts in a week on Blackboard. It will be graded not just number of reply but quality of response. And learners must use critical thinking in process of discussion. According to the Kanuka, Rourke, and Laflamme’s research (2007), they indicate five advantageous qualities in discussion activity 1)well structured 2)provide clearly defined roles and responsibilities for the students 3)provoke the students to explicitly confront others’ opinion. (p.269)week6-picture

 4. Choose one of the above activities and discuss the process you would use to create this presentation. For this task assume that you have no additional assistance other than the instructor who would be able to write content as you describe it and perform for a recording as needed.

I will choose Connect activity. First, instructor will create a discussion forum in order that learners can participate on Blackboard. Second, instructor will notice regarding discussion topic, due date, and requirements specifically. Lastly, all replies and posts are calculated and instructor will offer discussion rubric which includes cognitive(does students use critical thinking), social(participation) factors for grading.

5. Discuss how would your approach for the above task would be different if you were directing the development efforts of a team that included a graphic designer, a video editor and a web programmer along with all of the tools that such a team would typically use.

Instructional designer should discuss with graphic designer because this course includes online materials like PowerPoint. Graphic designer should design well-organized and have high quality of Power Point which is offered during lecture. Also, course should be designed interesting in order to attract learners’ motivation(interest). Additionally, I will discuss with web programmer regarding web design. Web programmer should design simple and clear navigation that learners can move from page to page easily. Video editor should consider quality of video.

6. The text presents test types and presents a list of common types of test questions. In light of these, describe a test that would be appropriate for the class your team planned in the previous session.

This course consists of pre-test, post-test, quiz, mid-term, and final examination. Quizzes will be 3-5 questions  which are multiple choice type and conducted in order to identify what students learn. For example, questions of pre-test are; 1.What is “Western Civilization”? 2. Who invented the Western Civilization course and why? Questions of post-test are; 1.Name and describe a key figure featured in this lecture 2.Name a key event featured in this lecture 3.What is a memorable take-away from this lecture? Mid-term and final exam will be used a short answer, multiple choice, and essay form. Learners’ outcome will be graded based on formative and summative test.


Faust, M. A., & Glenzer, N. (2000). I could read those parts over and over: Eighth graders rereading to enhance enjoyment and learning with literature. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 44(3), 234-239

Horton, William. E-Learning by Design (Second Edition). (2011) San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Kanuka, H., Rourke, L., & Laflamme, E. (2007). The influence of instructional methods on the quality of online discussion. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(2), 260-270

 Millis, K. K., & King, A. (2001). Rereading strategically: The influences of comprehension ability and a prior reading on the memory for expository text. Reading Psychology, 22(1), 41-65

Session 5 Response to Prompts

We created team name this week, that is, THMM which is acronym of Tsai, Hye su, Meng, Matthew. Thus, we designed instructional design by acting like THMM enterprise! It was really interesting because that name made me act like a part of company.

We made some expected questions by following 11 steps last week and develop a development plan for an online history class this week based on outcome of last week. Although I am learning instructional design in another class also, but it was a first time to make entire course outline and development plan just within a week, therefore it was slightly challengeable to me this week. However, through this process, I could learn what aspects we should deeply consider in order to design development plan and course outline. Instructional design and development is required an intensive effort.

Our team primarily utilized Skype, e-mail, and Trello for communication this week also. When we had a synchronous meeting with Dr.Newberry, I still remember that he asked us at the end of the course “do you think you understand how to design development plan or you got more confused?” I really wanted to say, “I am so confused” because I do not even know where should I start. After the meeting, our team leader emailed to us and we had a meeting in person at 9 p.m. in college of education on Tuesday. We discussed about how we will develop a course plan and how to assign roles individually. Our course plan is derived from “The History of Western Civilization up to 1950” which was provided by professor. And, finally, we decided to design online course outline by using a Trello because we could not gather at the same time for not only geological problem but also personal situation. All team members could actively revise course plan and development plan each other through Trello like, therefore we could check and revise our course plan whenever we had a time. After that, we divided individual roles:


After we decided our roles, we communicated via e-mail when we had questions or wanted to review from other group members. Also, when we could not make meeting all together, we met on the Skype at each others’ convenient time. Interestingly, we designed on our Trello. This is our Trello URL. blog(trello)

There are a lot of aspects instructional designer should consider when he or she design instructional design. Whenever he or she takes one step at a time in instructional design process, instructional design should be deeply considered and decided based on a perspective of instructor, perspective of learners, learners’ and instructor’s needs, learners’ ability, pre-requisite, content, content delivery, and media from all angles. The toughest thing in this week was that I had to design learners’ preference, ability, needs imaginarily without any tests because the course that we designed is not real class. Second, since I am not an expert on history, it was kind of challengeable to decide in “identify your underlying goal, identify what to teach” steps. Through this process, I realized that in processing instructional design, instructional design must interact with subject matter expert and instructor cooperatively. Instructional designer should thorough communicate with them continually regarding their needs, preferences, contents, content delivery in order to make best instructional environment where can be delivered effective and optimal instruction to learners.



Session 4 Response to Prompts

In this week, we had an opportunity to develop 11 steps of instructional design with my group. First, I thought that group work would be not easy because ETEC541 class is fully online class. However, we could work toward our goal actively under Mathew’s(primary contact person) leadership. We primarily contacted via email, Trello, and Skype. I discovered Trello web site from the team leader, this web site is really useful when people do group project because all members can check such as “what is plan, what we should do next step, what we are done”. Our team member is four and we divided into four part from 11 steps. All members were cooperative and participated actively, therefore we could finish our project successfully.

After synchronous meeting with Dr.Newberry, we decided “Mathew” as a primary contact member. And he emailed to us with attachments; document file which is summarized synchronous meeting(Jan.28), Trello URL, plans. I read email, joined Trello, and read materials Dr.Newberry provided and text book. And we had a Skype meeting on time. We supported one another when someone needed help. And I completed questions Friday night by referring class materials, textbook, and information from internet.

This is our Trello board.


My thought regarding instructional design so far, in fact, I am still unfamiliar with instructional design because I had never designed instruction in the past. However, I am learning about instructional design by studying step by step. I believe that in order to plan instructional design, these 11 steps are significantly important and I realized that all educations that I have taken so far are made through the process of instructional design. The textbook for ETEC541 provides us with 11 steps which instructor or instructional designer design a course quickly and reliably;

1)Identify your underlying goal

2)Analyze learners’ needs and abilities

3)Identify what to teach

4)Set learning objectives

5)Identify prerequisites

6)Pick the approach to meet each objective

7)Decide the teaching sequence of your objectives

8)Create objects to accomplish objectives

9)Create tests

10)Select learning activities

11)Choose Media

I think that each steps are all important processes. If the instructor do not analyze or decide carelessly, optimal education could not be delivered to learners. Rowland and Divasto (2013) states that “well executed, ID can be a reliable means of creating effective instruction, effective in the sense of helping groups of people achieve mastery of predetermined learning objectives and improve their workplace performance.” (p.10) Also, “several experts highlighted nine central features of ID: 1) systemic nature, 2) decisions based on clearly articulated learning goals, and 3) iterations of testing and revision. Also felt to be important were 4) thorough analysis, 5) clear links between learning goals and instructional strategies, and 6) conditions and/or instructional strategies can be prescribed based on known effects. The three remaining features– 7) systematic process, 8) replicable product, and 9) decisions based on empirical research–received mixed support. Several experts indicated some concern that while two features were important–thorough analysis, and iterations of testing and revision–they were not emphasized in practice.”(p.16) Instructional designer and instructor should have to consider all processes elaborately, also consider learner, instructor, environment, class contents, media in many ways. 11 steps are essential and when it were designed well, as Rowland and Divasto mentioned above, instructor could expect students’ successful outcomes and performance and deliver high quality education.


Rowland, G., & Divasto, T. (2013). Instructional design and powerful learning. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 26(2), 9-42

Martinez, T. R., Cummins, P., Savenye, W., & Shewell, J. (2012). E-learning as a core component of the instructional design profession. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 5(3), 37-42