1. Identify five key concepts or themes related to e-Learning Design and Development and explain what you know about each.
I think that five key concepts related to e-learning design and development are what I learned through ETEC541 this quarter. I think five key themes are interaction, educational game and simulation, absorb, do, and connect activity, mobile learning, and testing in e-learning design and dvelopment. First is interaction. I believe that students’ learning cannot be occurred appropriately without interaction in not only face-to-face but also e-learning education. Pena-Shaff et al.(2001) state that “the use of interactions is considered an important factor in teaching and learning via computer-mediated communication settings.” (p.51)Therefore, I think interaction should be considered when instructional designers design and develop e-learning. Interaction is divided into three categories: instructor and learners, learners and learners, and content and learners. First, interaction between instructor and learners is literally to communication with instructor and learners and it is significantly important in e-learning education. Chickering and Gamson (1987) mention that “feedback from instructor helps students focus their learning, incorporates affirmations of beginning assessments of student knowledge and competence, provides students opportunities to perform, suggests improvements, and encourages student self-reflection and assessment of their own learning.” (p.66) In e-learning environment, e-mail and Skype could be utilized for interacting with instructor. Second, interaction between learners and content should be considered when instructional designers design and develop e-learning as well. According to Kress(2001), “content interaction also brings into play multimedia and multimodal communication, with sensory learning through audio, visual and stimulation resources creating new possibilities for understanding and control.” (as cited in Thorpe and Godwin, p. p.205) E-material, Microsoft Word, PDF, or video could be used for interaction between content and learner. Third, interaction between learner and learner. learners can share perceptions from other classmates and expand knowledge by discussing with them. Blog, Skype, and e-mail could be utilized for interaction between learners. Among the text-based electronic media, the online discussion board is the most widely used medium for facilitating learners-learner interaction. In this platform, instructors expect to construct a collaborative learning environment where learners can share their intrinsic learning experiences and negotiate with a common understanding for certain tasks. (Moore and Kearsley, 2005) Thus, interaction is vital concept in e-learning.
Second is educational game and simulation. I believe that educational game and simulation in e-learning play important roles to reinforce learners’ knowledge. According to my experience, I could understand more and memorize easily regarding a concept and content when I played educational games after I took a lecture. Therefore, this concept is important in e-learning design and development. Kiilli(2005) mentions that “an engaging educational game should not only provide course content, but also con facilitate the flow of experiences of students” (p.196)
Third is absorb, do, and connect activity. I think that these three concepts have to be occurred in students’ learning process. Absorb activity is to understand and absorb knowledge and information by reading and listening contents. Absorb activity includes several activities such as presentation, reading, stories by a teacher, and field trip. Horton(2011) mentions that “in well-designed absorb activities, learners also consider, select, combine, judge, and process information.” (p.127) Do activity is to connect not only information and knowledge but also explanations and skill. This activity includes practice, discovery, games and simulation. Learners can reinforce their knowledge they gained through absorb activity. Horton says that “they put brains into action, exploring, discovering, practicing, refining, and perfecting knowledge and skill.” (p.161) Connect activity helps students deepen their knowledge by using critical thinking. Connect activity includes ponder, job aid, research, and original work. Absorb, do, and connect activity make students’ knowledge more structured. Therefore, instructional designers should consider regarding these three activities when they design and develop e-learning.
Fourth concept is mobile learning. Most students have their own mobile phone nowadays by developing technology and science. Therefore, e-learners study with their mobile phone so that we could expect a positive consequence from learners. Mobile learning can not only expand students’ learning but also study without time and place restriction. Kukulska-Hulme, Sharple, Milrad, Arnedillo-Sanchez, and Vavoula(2009) mention that “…the mobile technology, while essential, is only one of the different types of technology and interaction employed. The learning experiences cross spatial, temporal and/conceptual borders and involve interactions with fixed technologies as well as mobile devices. Weaving the interactions with mobile technology into the rubric of pedagogical interaction that develops around them become the focus of attention.” (p.8) Final theme is testing. Testing is necessary in e-learning environment and plays important role not only instructor but also learners. Learners could check their progress through test and motivate from grade of test. Furthermore, students could assess what they learn.
2. Speculate on the future of eLearning and what your role in that future might be.
Nowadays, demand of e-learning has been increasing in not only pre-k, K-12, and high education but also army, medical, and business/industry setting. I believe that e-learning has potential future by developing technology and internet. I think I have sense of duty to develop e-learning field as a student learning instructional technology. Of course, I believe there is no doubt that e-learning is still developing and will develop, however, e-learning faces several problems such as technical, assessment, and interaction problem. Let’s take an interaction problem example, because e-learning courses are occurring in cyberspace without meeting with people in reality, it is clear that there might exist difficulties toward communication between instructor and students. In Sull’s(2008) research, he conducted a survey of more than 300 online students and found “68 percent of the students respond [that as online students] they have poor feedback from their instructors” Because of such problematic e-learning issue, students cannot be expected high academic performance due to this lack of important interaction between instructor and learners. If these problems of e-learning were not solved, I think such problems could be a huge obstacle to develop an e-learning field. Therefore, my future role I think that I will keep continuing research regarding e-learning design in order to provide an optimal education and effective curriculum to students. Furthermore, I will also provide program which could cover above problems in future.
3. Revise the eLearning development template/instructional design process you developed earlier for yourself. Be sure to:
Target audience of my e-learning course is middle school student. However, although the target audience is specifically identified, it is not technically limited because there may many adults who cannot use functions of multiplication, subtraction, division, and plus in Excel program. This course may be needed instructional designer, ADA advisor, scriptwriter, subject matter expert(SME), graphic designer, learning management system expert, content reviewers, and course reviewers in order to develop this course.
a) List all of the roles of people who will be involved in the typical development.
1. Instructional Designer
Instructional designer plays role that consider all variables and analyze learners’ needs, objectives, ability, and prerequisite with instructor. Furthermore, he or she should has a close relationship with instructor and subject matter expert to deliver effective curriculum and contents to students. They will meet frequently in development stage. Instructional designers develop a curriculum design, program planning, and the effectiveness of testing and learner retention.
Instructor is a real teacher. Instructor has to communicate with instructional designers regarding his or her preferences, objectives, and underlying goals to deliver an optimal education to students.
3. ADA advisor
ADA advisor will give advise scriptwriter, graphic designer, and instructor regarding what functions are required in a course design and how to develop materials for disabled students.
The script will offer a narration, development notes, course branching directions, and quiz questions because labels and instructions will be displayed on the screen in this course.
5. Subject Matter Expert(SME)
Subject Matter Expert should consider regarding the topic of this course. Moreover, SME should frequently communicate with instructional designer.
6. Graphic designer
Graphic designer will create graphics and image during the development process.
7. Learning Management System (LMS) Expert
LMS expert will control overall development step. He or she is responsible for uploading of the course into the LMS, the association with the appropriate curriculum, and ensuring the appropriate rights are assigned to the course or intended users so that the audience may access the course without difficulty.
9. Content Reviewers
Content reviewers will review our course and provide feedback regarding accuracy and completeness of the course.
10. Course Reviewers
Course reviewers will review the course and provide feedback regarding hot the content is being received from a potential learner.
#9 and #10 could be conducted after complete development process.
b) Identify your role.
My role is instructional designer in this project. I will analyze learners’ needs, objective, abilities with instructor. Also, I should try to maintain a close relationship with all coworkers because I need to collect their ideas. In addition, I will develop a curriculum design, program planning, and the effectiveness of testing and learner retention.
c) Explain the type of courses or other eLearning development the template is for (higher education course, corporate training etc.)
This type of course is for middle school students.
d) Provide a clear label for all included elements.
1) Instructor will identify underlying goals, what to teach, and who is a target audience.
2) Instructor and instructional designer will analyze learners’ needs and abilities.
3) ADA adviser will give advice regarding policy for disabled students to instructional designer and graphic designer. (How to provide disabled students with web and contents)
4) Instructor will set learning objective.
5) Instructor and instructional designer will choose learning activities meet each objectives.
6) Instructor and instructional designer will create objects to accomplish objectives.
7) Instructor and instructional designer will decide the teaching sequence of this course objectives.
8) Create tests
9) Choose media
e) Provide a clear description of each included element.
It is described in a).
f) Provide a narrative explaining how the template would be used
Instructional design cannot be perfect even if instructional designers complete above nine steps once completely because there exist numerous variables in real educational situation. Thus, instructional design should be kept continuing revise and develop back and forth based on variables. Therefore, instructional designers and other people who is involved in instructional design process could be confused because this process is kind of complex. This instructional design and template could let them know concerning where they are and what is a next step clearly.
Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 1991(47), 63-69
Hockly, N.(2013). Mobile learning. Elt Journal, 67(1), 80-84
Kiili, K.(2005). Content creation challenges and flow experience in educational games: The IT-emperor case. The Internet and Higher Education, 8(3), 183-198
Kukulska-Hulme, A., Sahrples, M., Milrad, M., Inmachlada, A. S., & Vavoula, G.(2009). Innovation in mobile learning: A European perspective. International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, 1(1), 13-35
Pena-Shaff, J., Martin, W., & Gay, G.(2001). An epistemological framework for analyzing student interactions in computer mediated communication environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 12(1), 41-68
Sull, E. C. (2007). Overcoming the #1 complaint of online students: Poor instructor feedback. Higher Ed Teaching Strategies from Magna Publications
Thorpe, M., & Godwin, S.(2001). Interaction and e-learning: The student experience. Studies in Continuing Education, 28(3), 203-221
Moore, M., & Kearsley, G.(2005). Distance education: A systems view(2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Horton, William. E-Learning by Design (Second Edition). (2011) San Francisco: Pfeiffer.